Table 2. Critical themes results summary. ACM= adaptive co-management.


Critical themes or key questions for adaptive co-management identified in round one: Importance assigned by the expert panel in round two: Importance assigned by the expert panel in round three:
Mean SD % = Percent of expert panelists who ranked ≥ 4 Mean SD % = Percent of expert panelists who ranked ≥ 4
How do ACM mechanisms convey resilience or reduce vulnerability of socialecological systems, i.e., indicators? 5.00 1.79 79.2 5.17 1.61 89.6
Does ACM result in increased stewardship compared to centralized management? 4.86 1.43 86.1 4.86 1.30 82.7
Does ACM improve ecological health? 4.97 1.35 86.7 4.90 1.29 89.6
How are multiple sources/types of knowledge integrated and used? 5.30 1.24 90.0 5.52 0.87 96.5
Does ACM provide more “foresight” or a greater ability to respond to risk and uncertainty? 4.80 1.52 80.0 4.97 1.21 86.2
Does ACM enhance the well-being, i.e., livelihoods, of communities? 5.47 1.17 93.3 5.48 0.99 96.5
What is the role of the biophysical context or exogenous resources factors, e.g., climate change? 4.63 1.43 80.0 4.54 1.07 89.3
What role do institutional arrangements play in enabling or impeding ACM? 5.57 1.16 93.3 5.79 0.86 100
What role do individual champions play in sustaining ACM? 4.97 1.52 86.2 4.93 1.44 89.3
What role does the social, e.g., relationships, trust, and cultural, e.g., values, context have on ACM? 5.30 1.09 93.4 5.28 1.07 96.5
How does ACM work along horizontal linkages and across vertical scales? 5.53 0.97 96.6 5.69 1.07 96.5
Challenging the assumption that local, self-organized groups are sustainable due to morals and norms 3.57 1.55 46.4
What is the role of conflict in ACM? 4.57 1.31 83.3 4.55 1.06 86.2
How is the demand for ACM created? 4.10 1.69 56.7
What is the economic viability, i.e., cost effectiveness, transaction costs, of ACM? 4.83 1.44 76.7 4.90 1.21 86.2
Do ACM systems result in better management than alternative approaches? 5.33 1.40 86.7 5.48 1.33 93.0
Is the public trust mandate for managing natural resources adequately met via ACM? 4.27 1.70 63.4
What are effective methods of communicating among diverse stakeholder groups involved in ACM? 4.90 1.58 79.9 4.90 1.50 86.1
How can experiments be designed that do not adversely disadvantage any stakeholder group and/or organizational moral? 4.14 1.73 58.6
Can the adaptive management and precautionary approach be reconciled? 4.07 1.57 66.6
How can ACM be made simple and practically useful? 4.90 1.52 79.3 5.14 1.43 89.6
How can ACM be linked to basic theories of learning and cooperation in social groups, i.e., evolutionary theory? 4.17 1.53 73.4
How can marginalized groups, e.g., women, hunter gatherers, aboriginal peoples, be more effectively involved in ACM? 4.80 1.40 80.0 4.93 1.25 86.2
How can the effects of ACM be convincingly proven and communicated when they are difficult to measure and convey? 4.53 1.48 73.3
To what extent are the skills and capacity developed in ACM transferable? 4.67 1.47 76.7 4.69 1.31 86.1
Do ACM systems emerge naturally or do they require introduction? 4.10 1.56 63.4
What indicators should be monitored, and how should it be monitored, i.e., methods? 4.70 1.42 73.4
How do we move away from top-down decision making systems and toward collaborative management in which resource users and communities share power? 4.97 1.52 86.6 4.97 1.5 89.6
How is stakeholder inclusion and broad engagement in ACM achieved? 4.80 1.22 90.0 4.86 1.09 96.5
Need to understand the operational basis for learning and how to support/foster it 4.77 1.43 76.6 4.79 1.32 86.2
Need to understand the collaborative decision-making process 4.23 1.57 60.0
What is the scope of ACM, and how do we understand its main characteristics and conceptual framework? 4.40 1.79 66.6
What incentives motivate learning and behavior modification? 5.00 1.46 86.6 5.03 1.35 89.7
How do we increase legitimacy, i.e., authority, for the organizations and improve compliance for regulations? 4.60 1.40 83.3 4.76 1.06 93.1
Does ACM result in increased knowledge, data, and information sharing when compared to centralized management? 4.55 1.38 82.7 4.71 1.12 89.2
Does ACM result in empowerment of disadvantaged stakeholders and greater equity? 5.03 1.38 93.3 5.14 1.27 93.1
Need to develop sound methodologies that go beyond post-hoc case studies 5.03 1.52 90 5.03 1.55 86.1
How do we expand lessons learnt from specific sites or sectors to undertake an ecosystem or regional-scale approach? 5.20 1.38 90.1 5.41 1.18 96.5
How are differing views of property reconciled, i.e., first nation vs. state? 4.10 1.69 63.3
How does decentralization facilitate putting legalized management decisions into practice? 4.00 1.39 73.4