Table 1. Core components results summary.


Core components of adaptive co-management identified in round one: Importance assigned by the expert panel in round two: Importance assigned by the expert panel in round three
Mean SD % = Percent of expert panelists who ranked ≥ 4 Mean SD % = Percent of expert panelists who ranked ≥ 4
Sharing authority, i.e., power, between at least two groups of actors, usually, but not limited to the state and civic actors and/or users 5.80 1.32 93.3 6.07 0.88 100.0
Shared decision making 5.87 1.22 93.3 6.00 0.96 96.5
Inclusion of stakeholders for appropriate representation in the specific context, broadly defined to include those interested in management objectives, i.e., government, those directly, i.e., users, and indirectly, i.e., public, affected by potential interventions 4.93 1.62 80.0 5.24 1.09 96.6
Careful design, i.e., structuring, of management actions as deliberate experiments with learning as an objective of doing 5.50 1.38 93.4 5.59 1.30 93.0
Social learning by which actions are developed, tested, reflected upon, and revised, i.e., double loop learning, learning by doing 5.73 1.41 93.3 6.21 0.82 100.0
Capacity to evolve and change in light of feedback, i.e., adaptive 6.13 1.31 96.7 6.59 0.57 100.0
Communication, i.e., sharing of information and establishment of shared understanding 5.80 1.40 93.3 6.17 0.66 100.0
An underlying and ongoing process 4.65 1.57 84.6 4.85 0.95 96.2
An aim to increase socioecological resilience, i.e., conservation/preservation, of the resource system 4.67 1.42 76.7 4.62 1.43 82.6
Institutional innovation and creativity 5.07 1.41 83.4 5.17 1.17 96.5
Matching management to complex ecosystem structures/dynamics 4.41 1.35 68.9
Dealing with cross-scale linkages, i.e., across multiple levels 4.97 1.35 80.0 5.10 1.21 89.6
Incorporation/engagement of multiple sources of knowledge and culture 5.43 1.28 89.9 5.55 1.12 96.5
A collectively developed and agreed upon model of management roles and responsibilities 5.23 1.28 93.3 5.31 0.85 100.0
Adequate resources and capacity, e.g., human, financial, institutional 4.97 1.92 73.3
Focus on elements of difference, i.e., power, culture, knowledge, and legitimization and empowerment of different social actors 4.77 1.46 83.3 4.69 1.29 86.1
Equity 4.72 1.49 79.2 4.62 1.27 86.2
Participation in various aspects, e.g., decisions, enforcement, monitoring, etc. 4.90 1.21 93.3 4.90 1.08 89.5
Monitoring ecological and social changes and outcomes of interventions, i.e., adequate feedback loops 5.63 1.40 93.3 5.83 1.77 96.4
Flexibility that permits rapid institutional change 4.97 1.25 93.3 5.03 1.09 93.0
Place-based understanding 4.63 1.56 80.0 4.62 1.40 79.3
Trust, i.e., social capital, among participants and a nurturing environment 4.90 1.67 80.0 4.76 1.57 82.7
Strong leadership and/or facilitation 4.93 1.72 83.4 5.17 1.44 89.6
Conflict management mechanisms and processes 4.90 1.16 90.0 4.97 0.98 96.5
Decentralization 3.83 1.23 62.0
Common vision/goal or endpoint supported by rationale for direction 4.57 1.57 77.0 4.57 1.43 75.0
Social/organizational memory 4.30 1.58 70.0
Community capacity building 4.60 1.33 83.4 4.79 0.98 96.4
Sustainable livelihood development 4.10 1.74 62.0
Minimal external inputs, self-organization, and is self reliance 3.48 1.48 44.8