Fig. 1. Modes of knowledge capture and use when making decisions about natural resources. The different-sized stakeholder objects represent the role of stakeholder knowledge and power. The solid arrows represent the contribution of these stakeholders to the process of synthesizing knowledge or understanding, which is represented as the outer cylinder. The final synthesized knowledge is represented as the inner cylinder. The dotted lines represent the uptake of this newly synthesized knowledge by the stakeholders. (A) Extractive use, in which knowledge, values, or preferences are synthesized by the extracting group and passed on as a diagnosis to a decision-making process. (B) Co-learning, in which syntheses are developed jointly and the implications are passed to a decision-making process. (C) Co-management, in which the participants perform the syntheses and include them in a joint decision-making process.