Table 2. Key factors fostering social learning.

Factor Total score for significance† Total number of case studies in which the factor was an issue
Continued high motivation and engagement with high technical competence; personal qualities establishing and maintaining the legitimacy of the organizer 19 9
Independent technical mediator or facilitator 18 8
High level of commitment of the leaders 13 7
Establishment and maintenance of the legitimacy and openness of the project; continuous feedback, dissemination of minutes, questionnaires, comprehensive language, presentations, and background documents 11 7
Flexibility from both sides to do common work and move from original position 10 4
Clear expectations 9 5
Organizers well trained in group interactions 9 4
Crisis moments or issues of high concern, e.g., flooding 9 3
Good exchange of information 8 5
Limited number of participants to enable in-depth discussions 8 5
Sufficient time and resources 8 4
Joint planning of approach 8 3
Delegated leadership 7 4
Clear ground-rules for interaction 7 4
Bilateral meetings to inform and to listen with a specific focus 7 4
Cumulative nature; development from past experience 7 4
Common or shared area in the frames of all participants 6 4
Degree of interdependence among participants 6 3
Start from a blank sheet; no preconceptions 6 3
Strong river-basin institution 6 2
Frequent and focused discussions 5 5
Complementary multiparty interaction 4 4
Support from traditional political representatives 4 3
Informal work groups and field trips 3 4
Close interaction of key stakeholders and relevant policy makers 3 1

†Maximum score of 30; see Methodology for scoring methods.