Fig. 3. Old and new practices. On the left, logging done by a retired farmer who had carefully cleared the ground of branches and piled the logs, even small ones, as was done in the past. On the right, logging done by a younger, active farmer, who had roughly piled the largest logs, in order to work more rapidly. This example illustrates that forestry practices are changing and may have new ecological consequences, with a greater quantity of organic matter probably being left on the ground in the latter case. The traditional chestnut coppice structure, with a few oak standard trees, can be seen in both pictures. On the right, the trees in the background are a narrow fringe purposefully left along the woodlot edge, illustrating that a specific management is often applied to edges. Credit: A. Sourdril.