Fig. 1. Overlapping samples on the same study area. The study area was located in southwestern France, near Toulouse, in a rural region with croplands and pastures as a matrix (white) surrounding small woodlots and a few larger forests (green); towns, villages, and rivers are grey. The interdisciplinary research project had several sampling areas (shown by ellipses) according to the question addressed, but they overlapped as much as possible. The largest ellipse (dotted line) represents studies of bird/syrphid diversity in fragmented forests; the dashed-line ellipse represents tree diversity studies; the narrow red line ellipse represents roe deer and bird community dynamics; and the smallest ellipse (bold red line) represents fine-scale ecological studies combined with forestry and social studies that need detailed data (see Fig. 2).