Fig. 3. Schematic example of interaction across spatial, organizational, and temporal scales and levels. This schematic diagram can be used to illustrate the spatial and temporal dimensions of biogeophysical phenomena (the climate-related system represented as a solid line) and the interaction of two human domains: climate research (the long hashed line) and water management (hash-dotted lines). In this case, gaps exist in the human systems across levels within domains, e.g., international climate research does not link with national or subnational research or forecasting, and national water policy does not link with local water management) and across scales. This diagram is based on an original figure by Clark (1987) with recent additions by Lebel.