Fig. 4. Maximum likelihood fits of model MCONSTRAINT reveal differences among species in responses to habitat at different spatial scales. Shown are (a) Gambelís Quail (GAQU) and (b) Ash-throated Flycatcher (ATFL), two species for which MCONSTRAINT was the best model. Each line shows the fitted response to local habitat, i.e., x1, the proportion desertscrub cover within 56 m, for a selected value of landscape habitat and x2, the proportion desertscrub cover within 1784 m.