Fig. 4. Three-dimensional representation of degradation (solid arrows) and restoration (dashed arrows) trajectories for the Pite River, Sweden, based on charting the strength of longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity vectors (Table 1). The size of each point represents the relative variability in annual flow resulting at each phase, 1 though 4. Phase 1 represents pre-degradation; Phase 2, channel simplification and installation of revetments starting about 1870, to facilitate transport of logs to mill; Phase 3, establishment of impoundments, ca. 1930; and Phase 4, restoration via removal of revetments and emplacing structures to recreate complex in-stream habitat, ca. 2001.