Table 5. Modes of involvement and policy tools in the National Park case study (note that individuals would fall into several categories)

Stakeholder group Policy tools Participatory mode
During establishment of the National Park After the establishment of the National Park
Land owners Contractual agreements between landowners and the government, subsidies, and compensation Discussions in small regional groups; represented in negotiations by elected representatives Education through environmental programs and agricultural institutions; participation through established institutions
Residents and businesses Informal discussion platforms were established, on which each region had representatives for individual groups—such as the fisher and hunter association, the Lord Mayors of the individual towns, tourist representatives, and government officials. In addition, general information meetings were held in each of the villages to discuss the next steps in the planning process and to deal with fears and problems that might arise through the implementation of the National Park Platforms still exist today and meet twice yearly
National Park newspaper and other educational material
Fishers and hunters Landowners, fishers and hunters are compensated for incurred losses through not using “common economic practices” Hunters and fishers are organized in legal institutions designed as a means of self organization and as political pressure groups. In the negotiations for the National Park, these institutions provided the government with a legally authorized partner Involvement in discussion platforms
Regional and national bureaucratic institutions Civil servants from involved departments and representatives from provincial and state governmental institutions National Park authority serves as a coordinating body
Tourists Access restriction; guided tours; education Tourists were targeted through media reports, press events, and various educational activities National Park information center
The environment Legal instruments and international treaties protecting biodiversity, and regulating economic and public activities in sensitive areas Represented by environmental NGOs and governmental nature conservation authorities National Park authority, biological station responsible for ongoing monitoring and research