Table 2. Different forms of participatory involvement in environmental management projects (developed from Rowe and Frewer (2005))

Differentiation Nature of information flow
Public communication Information flows from the initiative’s sponsor to the public in a one-way, linear process. Public feedback is neither sought nor required. Fiorino’s (1990) arguments demand a greater role for the public than is made possible in this type of activity.
Public consultation Information is collected by the sponsor from the public, following a process initiated by the sponsor. The process is one-way and linear. It is this and the next degree of participation that are most prevalent within the adaptive management literature.
Public participation Information is exchanged between the sponsor and the public through the establishment of dialog. The process is two-way and often cyclical or iterative.