Table 1. Examples of interactions between the dilemmas and selected monitoring tasks of the Bwana Dikos. Kinship in this context extends to all members of the extended family and includes also multiple marriage and secret relationships.

Dilemmas
/tasks
Kinship dilemma Loyalty dilemma Poverty dilemma Control dilemma
Report illegal fishing gears and/or techniques Might avoid to report family members to the authorities

Masked the magnitude of illegal fishing

Avoids to report members of their own villages

Masked the magnitude of illegal fishing

Might allow illegal methods or activities because of understanding of the poverty situation in the village Impossibility to monitor due to large size of the areas

Knowledge reported to the authorities is fragmentary and/or misleading

License control and report Might ignore payment from family members

Loss of state income mainly affecting DFMR, conservation, education and scientific projects

Ignore payment from their own villages

Loss of state income mainly affecting DFMR, conservation, education and scientific projects

Ignoring payments in general

Loss of state income mainly affecting DFMR, conservation, education and scientific projects

Constraints the accuracy of controls
Communication about plans and projects Might favor family members

Masked or incomplete information

Not communicating controversial opinions

Pressures when patron-client relationships are present

Impossibility to communicate negative opinions/feelings of the locals to the authorities and vice versa

Might favor own village

Masked or incomplete information to both locals and authorities

Problems to ensure that the whole community has been informed

Difficult to find proper arenas for communication

Report and check
seaworthiness of the boats
Masked information of boats in bad conditions belonging to family

Masked the status of artisanal fisheries infrastructure

Masked information of boats in bad conditions in the village

Might increase accidents in the village

Might favor individuals for credits causing internal conflicts

Subject for pressure patron-client relationships and or reciprocity favors

Limit the frequency and accuracy of the possible observations and controls
Market data collection as basis for statistical analysis and fisheries management Not reporting illegal species caught by family members or friends

Masking the success of management efforts

Not reporting illegal species caught in the village

Not reporting illegal species consumption in particular sectors of the population

Masking the success of management efforts

Occasionally leaving data collection activities and engage into more lucrative opportunities Impossibility to monitor all activities in water and market
Misleading and/or incomplete statistical data
Missing data, leading to underestimation of total catches in biomass and monetary terms, incomplete information in all reported parameters
Loss of statistical power and balanced designs