Table 2. Examples of productivity growth. GDP stands for gross domestic product.

Sector/Technology
Region
Productivity indicator
Period
Annual productivity
change (%)
Whole economy
12 European countries
GDP/capita
1870–1992
1.7
Whole economy
12 European countries
GDP/hour worked
1870–1992
2.2
Whole economy
USA
GDP/hour worked
1870–1973
2.3
Whole economy
USA
GDP/hour worked
1973–1992
1.1
Whole economy
Japan
GDP/hour worked
1950–1973
7.7
Whole economy
South Korea
GDP/hour worked
1950–1992
4.6
Whole economy
World
GDP/primary energy
1971–1995
1.0
Whole economy
OECD
GDP/primary energy
1971–1995
1.3
Whole economy
USA
GDP/primary energy
1800–1995
0.9
Whole economy
UK
GDP/primary energy
1890–1995
0.9
Whole economy
China
GDP/primary energy
1977–1995
4.9
Whole economy §
Japan
GDP/material use
1975–1994
2.0
Whole economy §
USA
GDP/material use
1975–1994
2.5
Agriculture |
Ireland
Wheat (t/ha)
1950–1990
5.3
Agriculture |
Japan
Rice (t/ha)
1950–1996
2.2
Agriculture |
India
Rice (t/ha)
1950–1996
2.0
Industry
OECD (6 countries)
Value added/hour worked
1950–1984
5.3
Industry
Japan
Value added/hour worked
1950–1973
7.3
Industry
OECD
Industrial production/energy
1971–1995
2.5
Industry
OECD
Industrial production/energy
1974–1986
8.0
New cars #
USA
Vehicle fuel economy
1972–1982
7.0
New cars #
USA
Vehicle fuel economy
1982–1992
0.0
Commercial aviation ††
World
Ton-km/energy
1974–1988
3.8
Commercial aviation ††
World
Ton-km/energy
1988–1995
0.3
Commercial aviation ††
World
Ton-km/labor
1974–1995
5.6
Telephone call costs
Transatlantic
London/NY, cost for 3 min
1925–1995
8.5
Telephone cables
Transatlantic
Telephone calls/unit cable mass
1914–1994
25.0
Data Source: Maddison (1995).
Data Source: OECD and IEA statistics.
§Data Source: World Resources Institute (1997)
|Data Source: FAO (1963–1996) Production Statistics.
Data Source: OECD (1998), Waggoner (1996), Hayami and Ruttan (1985)
#Data Source: Including light trucks, Schipper (1996)
Data Source: International Civil Aviation Organization (1995)