Table 3. A typology of nontimber forest product- (NTFP) related household strategies: dominant characteristics based on Belcher et al. (2005).

Household strategy
Subsistence
Supplementary
Integrated
Specialized extraction
Specialized cultivation
Percentage of cases (N=55)
27%
36%
16%
13%
7%
Contribution of NTFP to income*
<50%
<50%
<50%
>50%
>50%
Integration in cash economy**
<50%
>50%
>50%
>50%
>50%
Cultivation
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Land tenure
State or communal
State or communal
Private
State or communal
Private
Product value
Low
Medium
Medium
High
High
Market
Local
Regional
Local
National and international
National and International

* Cash and subsistence household income
** Percentage of total income received as cash