||Explanation, including observed response (if
any) to stress or shock
|Reduced access to common fishing grounds
||With decreasing access to fishing grounds, conflicts have arisen in the past
decade. Fishers protested, and in 2001, areas in the Tonle Sap were designated
for community fisheries management. At the same time, a community fisheries
unit was created in the Department of Fisheries. Decentralization programs,
community-based management initiatives, and new legislation are policy responses meant to support the “local.”
|Declining resources (fish and forest)
||Progressive decline in wildlife and fish populations, along with habitat
degradation. Overharvesting, inappropriate “quick-catch” fishing
gear. Limited enforcement of existing laws.
|Loss of fishing gear
||Stolen or destroyed fishing gear (traps and gill nets) presents a challenge
for households (i.e., to pay off debt). Fisheries organizations grapple with
this issue. Local authorities (police, commune council, technical staff) are
hesitant to take this on.
|Being at the mercy of markets
||Market demands and fluctuating commodity prices; boom-bust marketing
cycles. No one to buy a product (sell-while-you-can mentality). Fishers rely
on layers of middlepersons to sell resources.
|Chronic poor health
||A challenge if a main household income generator has “little
energy.” In 2002, nearly all households claimed that someone within their
household was ill.
|Threat of violence during elections
||Especially for those households that are politically engaged. Belonging to
the opposition party may result in social exclusion, sometimes forcing
households to switch their allegiances. General nervousness during any election
|Forest fire in flooded forest: July 2003, Kompong Phluk
||62 ha burned near Kompong Phluk; took 1 week to douse. Elders directed the situation. Triggered an active fire prevention campaign.
|Thai border closing: Jan 2003, Koh Sralao
||Limited supplies in Koh Sralao for 1 month; fish products fetched ½
the normal market value and gasoline prices rose.
|Charcoal ban: 1999, Koh Sralao
||Forced more people into crab fishing or to leave the area. This shifted
pressure from one resource (mangrove degradation for charcoal) to another (the
|Khmer Rouge, 1975–1979
||Left a generation suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Trust within communities may be limited.