Table 3. Selection of transformed socioeconomic indicators run through a series of generalized linear models to assess the role of geology, i.e., precambrian vs. phanerozoic, and geographic region, i.e., Neotropics, Africa, Asia, and Oceania, in explaining pantropical variation.

Indicator Variable R2 df F P
Tropical Closed Broadleaved Forest Area Geology 0.18 1,68 15.27 < 0.001
(km2/person) Continent 0.06 3,66 1.39 > 0.050
Geology after Continent 0.17 1,68 14.16 < 0.001
Income, Debt, and Investment
GNI (US$/person, Atlas method @ PPP) Geology 0.07 1,66 5.17 < 0.010
Continent 0.5 3,62 21.13 < 0.001
Geology after Continent < 0.01 1,64 0.19 > 0.050
Continent after Geology 0.37 3,62 11.91 < 0.001
Total Government Debt (US$ @ PPP) Geology < 0.01 1,59 0.233 > 0.050
Direct Foreign Investment (US$) Geology < 0.01 1,59 0.04 > 0.050
Population & Health
Population Growth (% previous population) Geology < 0.01 1,61 0.57 > 0.050
Continent 0.25 3,59 6.43 < 0.001
Population Density (persons/km2) Geology 0.24 1,70 22.24 < 0.001
Continent 0.15 3,68 4.28 < 0.010
Geology after Continent 0.24 1,70 23.38 < 0.001
Continent after Geology 0.22 3,68 6.56 < 0.001
Life Expectancy (yr) Geology 0.14 1,62 9.64 < 0.010
Continent 0.74 3,60 56.53 < 0.001
Geology after Continent < 0.01 1,62 0.39 > 0.050
Continent after Geology
Infant Mortality (children/1000 births) Geology 0.16 1,62 11.82 < 0.001
Continent 0.57 3,60 26.73 < 0.001
Geology after Continent < 0.01 1,62 0.05 > 0.050
Continent after Geology
Access to Improved Water (% population) Geology 0.2 1,70 17.95 < 0.001
Continent 0.13 3,69 3.48 < 0.050
Geology after Continent 0.1 1,70 7.91 < 0.010
Continent after Geology 0.04 3,69 0.92 > 0.050
Education
Primary School Enrollment (%) Geology 0.16 1,49 9.49 < 0.010
Continent 0.61 3,47 24.3 < 0.001
Geology after Continent < 0.01 1,49 0.46 > 0.050
Continent after Geology 0.36 3,47 8.65 < 0.001
Commodity Production & Energy
Tropical roundwood production (m3 km-2 forest area) Geology 0.08 1,46 3.78 < 0.050
Continent 0.04 3,44 0.65 > 0.050
Oil Production (barrels/d) Geology 0.11 1,51 5.35 < 0.050
Continent 0.13 3,39 2.34 > 0.050
Gold Production (kg/yr) Geology 0.09 1,66 6.29 < 0.050
Continent 0.02 3,65 0.37 > 0.050
Energy Use (kg oil equivalent/person) Geology 0.07 1,35 2.7 > 0.050
  Continent 0.14 2,35 2.78 > 0.050