Table 1. Syndromes of cross-level, scale-dependent interplay. AEWC stands for Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission; CCAMLR, Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources; IWC, International Whaling Commission; NAMMCO, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission; and Y-K, Yukon-Kuskokwim Rivers.

Driving force
Pattern/Type
Outcome
Example

Limited authority

Negotiated agreement

Comanagement

Y-K Delta Goose management

Dynamics of
decentralization

De facto dominance

Hegemony

Ban on seal products

Dueling discourses

Separation

Competing regimes

IWC/NAMMCO/AEWC

Cognitive transitions

Merger

Institutional synthesis

CCAMLR/ecosystem-based management

Blocking coalitions

System change

Institutional breakdown

Alaskan wildlife