Table 2. Indicators and variables included in the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) of 2001, 2002, and 2005.

Component
Indicator
Variable Code
Variable
2001
2002
2005
PSIR
Environmental
Systems
(SYSTEM)
Air Quality (SYSAIR)
NO2
Urban population weighted NO2 concentration




State
SO2
Urban population weighted SO2 concentration



TSP
Urban population weighted TSP concentration



INDOOR
Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use
X
X

Biodiversity
(SYSBIO)
ECORISK
Percentage of country's territory in threatened eco-regions
X
X



State

PRT_BRD
Threatened bird species as percentage of known breeding bird species in each country



PRT_MAM
Threatened mammal species as percentage of known mammal species in each country



PRTAMPH
Threatened amphibian species as percentage of known amphibian species in each country
X
X

NBI
National Biodiversity Index
X
X

Land
(SYSLAN)
ANTH10
Percentage of total land area (including inland waters)having very low anthropogenic impact
X


State
ANTH40
Percentage of total land area (including inland waters)having very high anthropogenic impact
X


SOIL
Severity of human induced soil degradation

X
X
ANTHRO
Land area impacted by human activities as a percentage of total land area

X
X
Water Quality
(SYSWQL)
GMS_DO
WQ_DO
Dissolved oxygen concentration



State
GMS_EC
WQ_EC
Electrical conductivity



GMS_PH
WQ_PH
Phosphorus concentration



GMS_SS
WQ_SS
Suspended solids



Water Quantity (SYSWQN)
WATAVL
Freshwater availability per capita
X
X

State
GRDAVL
Internal groundwater availability per capita
X
X

WATCAP
Internal renewable water per capita (water availability per capita in 2001)


X
WATINC
Per capita water inflow from other countries


X
Reducing
Environmental
Stress
(STRESS)
Reducing Air Pollution
(STRAIR)
COALKM
Coal consumption per populated land area



Pressure
NOXKM
Anthropogenic NOX emissions per populated land area



SO2KM
Anthropogenic SO2 emissions per populated land area



VOCKM
Anthropogenic VOC emissions per populated land area



CARSKM
Vehicles in use per populated land area



Reducing Ecosystem Stress (STRECO)
FOREST
Annual average forest cover change rate from 1990 to 2000 (ESI 2002: 1990-95)



Pressure
AC_EXE
ACEXC
Acidification exceedance from anthropogenic sulfur deposition



Reducing Population
Pressure (STRPOP)
GR2050
Percentage change in projected population 2004-2050 (ESI 2001: present to 2050; ESI 2002: 2000 to 2050)



Pressure
TFR
Total Fertility Rate



Reducing Waste &
Consumption Pressures
(STRWAS)
EFPC
Ecological Footprint per capita
X


Pressure
RECYCLE
Waste recycling rates
X
X

HAZWST
Generation of hazardous waste
X
X

NUKE
Radioactive waster


X
PRESS
Consumption pressure per capita

X
X
Reducing Water Stress
(STRWAT)
BODWAT
Industrial organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions per available freshwater



Pressure
FERTHA
Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land



PESTHA
Pesticide consumption per hectare of arable land
WATSTR
Percentage of country under severe water stress



Natural Resource
Management (not in ESI 2002)
OVRFSH
Productivity over-fishing
X
X

Response
FORCERT
Percentage of total forest area that is certified for sustainable management
X
X

WEFSUB
World Economic Forum Survey on subsidies
(under CAPGOV in ESI 2002)
X


IRRSAL
Salinized area due to irrigation as percentage of total arable land
X
X

AGSUB
Agricultural subsidies
X
X

Reducing
Human
Vulnerability
(VULNER)
Environmental Health
(VULHEA)
DISINT
Death rate from intestinal infectious diseases



Impact
DISRES
Child death rate from respiratory diseases



U5MORT
Children under five mortality rate per 1,000 live births



Basic Human Sustenance
(VULSUS)
UND_NO
Percentage of undernourished in total population
X


Impact
WATSUP
Percentage of population with access to improved drinking water source



CALOR
Daily per capita calories supply as a percentage of total requirements

X
X
Reducing Environment-Related Natural Disaster Vulnerability (not in ESI 2001 and ESI 2002)
DISCAS
Average number of deaths per million inhabitants from floods, tropical cyclones, and droughts
X
X

Impact
DISEXP
Environmental Hazard Exposure Index
X
X

Social and
Institutional
Capacity
(CAP)
Environmental Governance
(CAPGOV, not in ESI 2001)
GASPR
Ratio of gasoline Price to world average
(Price of premium gasoline in 2001, and under CAPDIS)



Response
GRAFT
Corruption measure (under CAPDIS in 2001)



GOVEFF
Government effectiveness
X
X

PRAREA
Percentage of total land area under protected status
(under CAPMAI in 2001)



WEFGOV
World Economic Forum Survey on environmental governance
X


LAW
Rule of Law
X
X

AGENDA 21
Local Agenda 21 initiatives per million people
X
X

CIVLAB
Civil and Political Liberties
X


CSDMIS
Percentage of variables missing from the CGSDI ‘Rio to Joburg Dashboard’
X
X

IUCN
IUCN member organizations per million population (under CAPDEB in 2001 and 2002)



KNWLDG
Knowledge creation in environmental science, technology, and policy
X
X

POLITY
Democracy measure (Democratic institutions in ESI 2002, also under CAPDEB)
X


EIA
Number of sectoral EIA guidelines


X
FSC
FSC accredited forest area as a percent of total forest area (under GLOCOI in 2001)


X
WEFSUB
World Economic Forum Survey on subsidies
(under CAPDIS in 2001 and Natural Resource Management in 2005)



SUBFSH
WWF subsidy measures
X

X
Capacity for debate (CAPDEB, not in ESI 2005)
IUCN
IUCN member organizations per million population (under CAPGOV in ESI 2005)



Response
CIVLIB
Civil and political liberties


X
POLITY
Democracy institutions (Democratic measures in ESI 2005, also under CAPGOV)
X


ESIMIS
Percentage of ESI variables in publicly available data sets (under CAPINF in 2001)


X
Social and
Institutional
Capacity
(CAP)
Regulation and management (CAPMAI, not in ESI 2002 and ESI 2005)
WEFSTR
Environmental Regulatory Stringency

X
X
Response
WEFINN
Environmental Regulatory Innovation

X
X
PRAREA
Percentage of land under protected status (under CAPGOV in 2002 and 2005)



EIA
Number of sectoral EIA Guidelines (under CAPGOV in 2002 and 2005)



Eco-Efficiency
(CAPEFF)
ENEFF
Energy Efficiency



Response
RENEWP
RENPC
Hydropower and renewable energy production as a percentage of total energy consumption



Reducing public choice distortions (CAPDIS, not in ESI 2002 and ESI 2005)
GASPR
Price of premium gasoline (USD per gallon) (ratio of gasoline Price to world average in 2002 and 2005, and under CAPGOV)



Response
WEFSUB
Subsidies for energy or materials usage (WEF Survey) (under CAPGOV in 2002 and Natural Resource management in 2005)



GRAFT
Corruption measure (World Bank) (under CAPGOV in 2002 and 2005)



Environmental information (CAPINF, not in ESI 2002 and ESI 2005)
SDINFO
Availability of sustainable development information at the national level

X
X
Response
PLANS
Environmental strategies and action plans

X
X
ESIMIS
Percentage of ESI variables missing from public global data sets (under CAPDEB in 2002)


X
Private Sector Responsiveness
(CAPPRI)
DJSGI
Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index (DJSGI)



Response
ECOVAL
Average Innovest EcoValue rating of firms headquartered in a country



ISO14
Number of ISO 14001 certified companies per billion dollars GDP (PPP)



WEFPRI
World Economic Forum Survey on private sector environmental innovation
X


RESCARE
Participation in the Responsible Care Programme of the Chemical Manufacturer's Association
X
X

WBCSD
World Business Council for Sustainable Development members


X
WEFCOM
Environmental Competitiveness (WEF Survey)

X
X
Social and
Institutional
Capacity
(CAP)
Science and Technology
(CAPST)
INNOV
Innovation Index
X


Response
DAI
Digital Access Index
X
X

PECR
Female primary education completion rate
X
X

ENROL
Gross tertiary enrollment rate
X
X

RESEARCH
Number of Researchers per million inhabitants
X
X

TAI
Technology Achievement Index
X

X
SCHOOL
Mean years of schooling (age 15 and above)
X

X
RDPERS
Research and development scientists and engineers per million population

X
X
RDEXP
Expenditure for research and development as a percentage of GNP

X
X
ARTPOP
Scientific and technical articles per million population

X
X
Global Stewardship
(GLOBAL)
Participation in International Collaborative Efforts
(GLOPAR)
EIONUM
Number of memberships in environmental intergovernmental organizations (under GLOCO in 2001)



Response
FUNDING
Contribution to international and bilateral funding of environmental projects and development aid
X
X

PARTICIP
Participation in international environmental agreements
X
X

CITES
Percentage of CITES reporting requirements met (under GLOCLI in 2001)


X
VIENNA
Levels of participation in the Vienna Convention/Montreal Protocol (under GLOCLI in 2001)


X
FCCC
Levels of participation in the Climate Change Convention


X
MONFUN
Montreal Protocol multilateral fund participation (under GLOFIN in 2001)


X
GEF
Global Environmental Facility participation (under GLOFIN in 2001)


X
WEFAGR
Compliance with international agreements (under GLOCO in 2001)


X
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GLOCLI, not in ESI 2001)
CO2GDP
Carbon emissions per million US dollars GDP
X


Pressure
CO2PC
Carbon emissions per capita
X


Reducing Trans-boundary Environmental Pressures (GLOTRA, not in ESI 2001)
SO2EXP
SO2 Exports (under GLOCOI in 2001)



Pressure
POLEXP
Import of polluting goods and raw materials as percentage of total imports of goods and services
X
X

CFC
CFC consumption (total times per person) (under GLOCOI in 2001)


X
FSHCAT
Total marine fish catch
X

X
FSHCON
Seafood consumption per capita
X

X

Global Stewardship
(GLOBAL)
International Commitment (GLOCO, not in ESI 2002 and ESI 2005)
EIONUM
Number of memberships in environmental intergovernmental organizations (under GLOPAR in 2002 and 2005)



Response
CITES
Percentage of CITES reporting requirements met (under GLOPAR in 2002)


X
VIENNA
Levels of participation in the Vienna Convention/Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer (under GLOPAR in 2002)


X
WEFAGR
Compliance with international agreements (under GLOPAR in 2002)


X
Global-scale funding and participation (GLOFIN, not in ESI 2002 and ESI 2005)
MONFUN
Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund participation (under GLOPAR in 2002)


X
Response
GEF
Global Environmental Fund participation (under GLOPAR in 2002)


X
Protecting international commons (GLOCOI, not in ESI 2002 and ESI 2005)
FSC
FSC accredited forest area as a percent of total forest area (under CAPGOV in 2002)


X
Pressure
FOOT
Ecological Footprint ‘deficit’

X
X
CO2_EM
CO2 emissions (total times per capita)

X
X
CFC
CFC consumption (under GLOTRA in 2002 and 2005)



SO2EXP
SO2 exports (under GLOTRA in 2002 and 2005)



CO2HIS
Historic, cumulative CO2 emissions

X
X

X = not included in the ESI of that year.
√ = included in the ESI of that year.