APPENDIX 1. Examples of Integration and Implementation Sciences in Action
The examples below provide snapshots of an exemplary and diverse range of research projects that have developed or applied theory and methods that come under the rubric of Integration and Implementation Sciences.
- Bringing together slum-dweller organizations, non-governmental organizations, researchers, urban planners, and housing authorities in multi-stakeholder data-collection and planning processes that developed sustainable, “win–win” solutions to slum resettlement in Mumbai city (Batliwala 2003).
- Providing decision support to policy makers through models that incorporate stakeholder input accessed through participatory methods. Such Integrated Assessment has been used to address the impacts of global environmental changes on vector-borne disease, such as malaria, globally, as well as for specific locations, such as Kisumu in Kenya (Martens et al. 1999).
- Assisting in creating partnerships between relevant agencies to tackle health problems in developing countries, for example, between a private foundation and a pharmaceutical company to donate drugs for the treatment of trachoma (Reich 2002), and between health, transport, police, and other agencies to tackle road traffic crashes (Reich and Nantulya 2002).
- Developing a process of co-mentoring for partnerships between respected Australian Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous researchers that has been successfully used to improve services for older Indigenous people (Dance et al. 2004).
- Using transdisciplinary thinking to analyze complex historical and contemporary forces shaping the epidemic of heart disease in the Australian coalfields, and to select points of critical leverage for community interventions (Higginbotham et al. 2001).
- Using participatory, structured, multivariate Concept Mapping methodology to help networks of public health practitioners and organizations conceptualize and address a wide array of health issues, including HIV/AIDS, cervical cancer, end-of-life concerns, and lower prevalence chronic health conditions (Trochim 1989).