Table 1. Effects of cultural system configurations on ecosystem monitoring


Cultural System Configuration
Clarity of Ecosystem Signal Receipt
Necessary contradiction
Suppression of signals that reveal the contradiction.
Contingent contradiction
Each side uses data to support its position; but each critiques the other; no suppression but reluctance to accept the other’s views. Dominance of one side will lead to suppression of other views; until that occurs, much information will be forthcoming.
Necessary complementarity
Comfortable solidarity will lead to suppression of signals that contradict the complementarity, but other signals provide no threat and may be encouraged. Links among complementary ideas are stressed.
Contingent complementarity
Different approaches coexist with no reason to engage one another; each approach gathers the data that support it. No reason exists to gather data on interactions.